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 aka PeaceHavens Project
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Connections with

 

St Petersburg, Russia

(Known as Leningrad during the Soviet Era)

The Crossed Anchor and Grapnel with a Septre
are the Arms of St Petersburg City

   A crossed anchor & grapnel on a seal does not mean it is from St Petersburg. The anchor on the left represents the sea, while the grapnel on the right represents the river. Together they mean that the city has both river and sea ports. It is the sceptre which means that the city was the former capital of Russia.  Together making the Arms of St Petersburg. The Anchor and Grapnel appear on seals from other cities because they are sea and river ports. The seal on the left is Riga, the centre one St Petersburg, the one on the right Archangel.   See  River Sea Seals

ТРАН ПОРТА PИЖСКОЙ

Port of Riga

 SANKT PETERBURG

Saint Petersburg

 APXAH (ARKHAN)

Archangel Port

 

Surprisingly the writer CI Borissow in "The Commerce of St Petersburg" in 1818

 says the trade in quality flax at Riga is much more considerable than at St Petersburg.

St Petersburg procures its best flax from Novogorod and Pskove.

    Russians are the basic ethnic community of St. Petersburg. The Russian language is related to the Slavic group of Indo-European languages. Their faith is Orthodox Christian. In the 18th century Russians comprised 90% of the population of St. Petersburg. In 1869 555,000 Russians were living in the city (83.2% of population), in 1900 - 1,184,000 (82.2%), in 1989 - 4,448,900 (89.1%).  Russians make up the majority of the social communities in St. Petersburg. The Slavonic population, the ancestors of the Russians appeared at the edge of the Neva river basin 1,000 - 2,000 years A.D. In 1323 at the source of the Neva the fortress Oreshek was founded (see Shlisselburgskaya Fortress). At the location of St. Petersburg in the 16th century, there was a Russian trading settlement at the Neva mouth. Russian carpenters, boat builders, workmen were sent at the decree of Tsar Peter the Great (mainly from the north and centre of Russia) and soldiers participated in the construction of the city. In the 19th to the early 20th centuries, immigrants in St. Petersburg from the upper Volga (Yaroslavskaya, Tverskaya, Kostromskaya provinces), north (Vologodskaya, Olonetskaya, Arkhangelskaya provinces) and northwest (Pskovskaya, Novgorodskaya provinces) of Russia predominated. In the 20th century a part of the immigrants came from the south and eastern regions of the country. Interethnic marriage has been characteristic of the Russian population since the late 19th century. Descendants of such marriages usually considered themselves Russian. Being the capital of the Russian Empire, St. Petersburg was the most important centre of Russian culture and remains to be till this day.

The Planted People of St Petersburg  (The Guests of Tsar Peter the Great)

   Merchants were a social group forming a part of the St. Petersburg population, individuals engaged in trade and industrial activities. In the first half of the 18th century merchants came in among the "planted people" whereupon Tsar Peter the Great forcibly sent merchants from Arkhangelsk and other cities with decrees of 1712 and 1714 stipulating the resettlement of more than 300 wealthy merchants to St. Petersburg. The so-called "guests" (by 1716 some 186 merchants were relocated) came to St. Petersburg and traded hemp, skins, flax, and canvas. Among the first merchants were I. Isaev (vice-president of the St. Petersburg City Council), I. Miklyaev, A. Bolotin, I. Veselovsky, I. Dmitrov and M. Evreinov. The Petersburg merchants, as they were all over Russia, were organized into guilds and enjoyed the right of self-government.  The City Charter in 1785 replaced the merchantsí capitation tax of paying a percent from their declared income and permitted them to pay in place of government service. In 1786 the 10 most eminent citizens in St. Petersburg and province included merchants and bankers, there were 288 merchants in the first guild, 394 in the second guild, 3,555 in the third guild. In the second half of the 19th century the numbers of merchants declined.  In 1869 there were about 22,300 people in the merchant class. (3.3% of the population) and  in 1897 - 17,400 (1.4%). comparing 1869/1897 .. of the merchants 77.5% and 80.4% were Russian, with 15.4% and 12% - German, and 4% and 5% Jewish. The German ethnic community formed a part of the St. Petersburg population. German language is related to the Germanic group of Indo-European languages. Their religion is Lutheran (amongst the St. Petersburg population up to 90%) and Catholic. Germans are the majority of the foreigners living in St. Petersburg. The German community was conceived at the same time as the city. Tsar Peter the Great invited German specialists to Russia, among many others. They consisted of artisans (from among these in the 19th century the most famous were the bakers), soldiers, civil servants, scholars, and doctors. The German community in St. Petersburg grew on account of the Germans in the Baltic states, especially Riga, as well as from immigrants from Germany, from the second half of the 18th century. From the second half of the 18th century there arose in St. Petersburg Province a German agricultural colony (on the territory of present day St. Petersburg - Grazhdanka, Vesely Poselok among others). In 1869 there were 45,600 Germans living in St. Petersburg.

 

Scenes of St Petersburg in the 18th/19th Century

CAHKTПETEPБПOT = SANKT PETERB POT = St Petersburg Port
CAHKTПETEPБУ:ПOP = SANKT PETERBU POR = St Petersburg Port

 

St Petersburg was the capital and centre of tax collection

 St Petersburg was the capital and centre of tax collection during the Flax Trade Era. A fundamental mistake made by seal identifiers in the early days was that SPB or СПБ meant the seal came from St Petersburg. PeaceHavens Rules state it actually means that tax had been paid to St Petersburg. Every seal dated from 1829 with SPB or СПБ on the reverse and ЛД (LD) (flax inspector) on the obverse is a flax seal and by the same token every seal dated before 1829 with SPB or СПБ on the reverse and ПД (PD) (hemp inspector) on the obverse is a hemp seal.  All seals with NP on the reverse before 1829 are flax seals .. in fact there are no NP seals after 1829... tax paid to St Petersburg.  Both dew-retted and water-retted flax are exported from St Petersburg, the dew-retted or Slanitz flax being marked 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Crown, also Zebrack No. 1 and No. 2. St Petersburg and Archangel Tow are both classed as No1 and No2. Codilla was classed as Archangel, St Petersburg & Riga No. 2 and No. 3.   St. Petersburg ships Pskov 12 heads, Longa 12 heads, Staro Ruse 12 beads, Saletsky 12 heads, 9 heads, and 6 heads, all of which are white, or water-retted ; also Rjeff, let, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th crown, and Zabrack, all brown or dew-retted ; many other minor dew-retted flaxes come from St. Petersburg, bearing the names of the locality of production, as Melinki, Bejetsky, Ouglitcb, Kostroma, Jaroslav, Vologda, Wiasma.

Vessel

Ship Arrivals and Departures for St Petersburg

Cargo

Bruce

04-09-1817

Arrived

Dundee

from

St Petersburg

Flax

Bruce

21-11-1817

Arrived

Dundee

from

St Petersburg

Flax

Bruce 11-09-1818 Arrived Dundee from St Petersburg Flax
Bruce 24-07-1820 Arrived Dundee from St Petersburg Flax
Bruce 07-09-1821 Arrived London from St Petersburg Flax
Bruce 00-08-1823 Arrived Dundee from St Petersburg Flax
Bruce 06-09-1824 Arrived Arbroath from St Petersburg Flax
John Black 09-06-1831 Arrived Dundee from St Petersburg Flax
Margaret 17-08-1831 Arrived Dundee from St Petersburg Codilla

   At the start of the 19th century St Petersburg was Dundee's most important trading partner with 28 vessels arriving from Russia in 1815. This trade was mainly flax and remained important throughout the century but the raising of prices and poorer quality led to a relative decline. By 1829, imports of flax and hemp from St Petersburg were around 80000 cwt but this was half that coming from Riga. The same pattern can be seen in Arbroath. If flax trade decreased, it was replaced by animal skins with more than 1400 reaching Dundee from St Petersburg in 1829 on the 35 ships docking from that port.

   The number of ships more than doubled by 1836. St Petersburg was one of the few European ports to which Dundee exported in the early 19th century with three of four vessels sailing each year. Most of the figures for St Petersburg - Dundee trade in the 19th century combine the figures for St Petersburg and Kronstadt. St Petersburg was an awkward port to enter, nothing deeper than 8ft 9in could pass the bar so the larger vessels, which could not sail up the Neva, were loaded and unloaded at Kronstadt. See  Kronstadt

    The principal commodities for the export trade via St Petersburg were iron, copper, hemp, first, second and third sort flax, codilla, cordage, tallow and tallow candles, wax and wax candles, soap, potash, hemp seed oil, linseed oil, isinglass, tobacco leaves, horse hair, treacle, bristles, Muscovy leather, sole leather, tar, pitch, linen yarn, mats, feathers and down, wool, caviar, tea, hops, horsetails, hare skins, Morocco bear skins, calve skins, deals, spars, quills, hats, ox and deer tongues, glass of different kinds, sailcloth, ravenduck, drillings, different kinds of napkin cloth, wheat, rye, linseed, flems, linen of different sorts, ox and cow horns and bones, pelts and other lesser goods.

 

 St Petersburg & Jewish Star Seals

Jews were an ethnic community within the St. Petersburg population. Hebrew is related to the Semitic group of Afrasian languages, Yiddish (was spread throughout the majority of eastern Russia) is related to the Germanic group of Indo-European family of languages. They are mostly followers of Judaism, though some have converted to Christianity. Converted Jews were among the associates of Tsar Peter the Great (diplomat P.P. Shafirov, Gen. Polismaster A.M. Devier). From the 1780s in St. Petersburg, Jewish merchants began to settle (T.N. Notkin, A.I. Peretz). However, the rights of Jews to live in the capital were restricted by special legislation. From the mid-19th century the Jewish community began to grow rapidly: in 1869, there were approximately 6,600 Jews; in 1910 - more than 35,100. Among the Jews minor craftsmen and traders predominated, but there were also doctors, lawyers, journalists and entrepreneurs. From the 1860s Jewish charitable societies operated, publishing papers in Hebrew, Yiddish and Russian. The Ginzburg Barons, rendered great assistance to the Jewish community. In 1893 a choral synagogue opened. In 1802 75 Jews were buried in a different part of Volkovskoe Lutheran Cemetery, from 1875 at their own Jewish cemetery. After October 1917, Jews received access to state organizations and city government, (significant posts were held by G.E. Zinovyev, М.S. Uritsky, V. Volodarsky).

 

   Most St Petersburg's seals have SPB or CПБ on them but with seals dated before 1829 this is always an indication that the bales have hemp in the bale and they may have come  from St Petersburg, Riga, Port Narva, Reval, Pernau, Libnau, Memel, Windau or other Ports.  STPB is definitely from St Petersburg. 

    NP on seals before 1829 is always an indication that the bales have flax in the bale and yet again they may have come  from St Petersburg, Riga, Port Narva, Reval, Pernau, Libnau, Memel Windau or other Ports.

      By the same token NP on the second line on the reverse as in NP_1 (HoП_1), NP_2 (HoП_2), NP_3 (HoП_3) indicates a first, second or third grade flax.

 

Seals on goods coming from St Petersburg have StPB - with SPB and СПБ as tax payments to SPB

 

Miscellaneous Russian Seals - possibly flax.

These seals do not specifically say that they are flax or hemp

 they just say the are number 1 or 2 grade, or Sort.

     Russian customs had similar grading on lots of exports including - iron, copper, hemp,  flax, codilla, cordage, tallow and tallow candles, wax and wax candles, soap, potash, hemp seed oil, linseed oil, isinglass, tobacco leaves, horse hair, treacle, bristles, Muscovy leather, sole leather, tar, pitch, linen yarn, mats, & feathers and down, wool, caviar, tea, hops, horsetails, hare skins, Morocco bear skins, calve skins, deals, spars, quills, hats, ox and deer tongues, glass of different kinds, sailcloth, ravenduck, drillings, different kinds of napkin cloth, wheat, rye, linseed, flems, linen of different sorts, ox and cow horns and bones, and other lesser goods.

IDS
1137

ЯАХОВ ОКАГО
ОКАГО (ligature)

(YAKOV OKAGO)

 No 2
(Number 2 grade)
1847

104 CUPMS: 1999.53.37
(flax)

IDS
1138

ПОВХО ----- ДПА
ЯD (ligature)
(POVKHO-----DPA)

 No 1
(Number 1 grade)
1847

John McRobbie
Perthshire, Scotland
(flax)

IZ

ИЗ
(IZ)

 N 2
(Number 2 grade)
1845

6 ADMUS: A1988.292
(flax)

IDS

1183

S.KG & Co.
1847

III
SORT

3rd
SORT

Newent
Gloucestershire

IDS
1201

БРАТЬЯ  ЕЛИСЕЕВЫ
BOTHERS ELISEEVY
Russian Double Headed Eagle
СПБ  (St Petersburg)

СЪ / 1813 / СЕДА
SELO SEDA

Seda Village Latvia

Russia

  IDS1201 Joint stock company "Seda" is a major employer in the extraction of peat.

IDS
1202

*БРАТЬЕВЪ ЕЛИСЕЕВЫХЪ

BROTHERS ELISEEVYKH БЕ (BE caligraphy)

СПБ  (St Petersburg)

Russia

IDS
1203

Bee (beeswax for candles)

СП:Б ЕПАРХИАЛЬНЫЙ.
 СВѢЧНОЙ / СКЛАДЪ

DIOCESAN CANDLE

WAREHOUSE IN SPB

Russia

IDS
1204

Boat

(Lodz is boat in Polish)

МАКСИМ. ШИФФЕРЪ / ЛОДЗЬ
MAXIM SHIFFER of LUDZ

Russia

  IDS 1204 Lodz was the "Manchester of Poland" and centre of their successful textile industry which was a threat to Russian textiles around 1885.

IDS
1216

ТОРГ.ДОМ
 (ТОРГОВЫЙ ДОМ)
TRADING HOUSE of
ПЕРЛОВЪ (PERLOV)

*
С - ПЕТРБ
St Petersburg
*

Russia

IDS
1227

ТHORNTON
*С.П.Б* (St Petersburg)
ТОРНТОНЪ

blank

Euro-Plombs

NEVSKAYA MANUFAKTURA (50 Oktyabrskaya Embankment), an open joint-stock company, manufacturer of woollen cloth, non-woven fabrics, and industrial cloth. Founded by English merchant J. Thornton in 1841, the factory belonged to Thornton Woolens Partnership from 1866. It specialised in spinning, weaving, and finishing, as well as manufacturing fabric, such as wool, ratteen, cheviot, tweed, etc., as well as blankets, plaids, and shawls.

IDS
2036

ТHORNTON
* С.П.Б * (St Petersburg)
ТОРНТОНЪ

blank  

Ged Dodd
eBay, Russia

IDS
1207

ПЕЧАТЬ / C:ПБУГ П:АМTA

SEAL / ST PETERSBURG POST

blank

Russia

   IDS 1207   ПЕЧАТЬ  C:П(ETEP)БУГ П(OЧ)АМTA is the Seal of St Petersburg Postal Service

 

The Vanyukovs of  Soltsy.

   Soltsy, named from the nearby salt water springs, was an intermediate station on the trade route connecting Novgorod and Pskov. Flax and hemp goods were shipped to St Petersburg by barge. In the 2nd guild list of Soltsy merchants from 1844, Mikhail, Ivan, Timofey and Fyodor (Fedor) Vanyukov were recorded Quality control officers who were registered in St Petersburg as a Hemp & Flax Codilla Brackers.  Codilla (Cedilla) or (Paklya) is Scutching Tow. Broken fibres from Scutching or the Heckled flax is used for Tow yarn, twine or stuffing. Hemp Codilla is the refuse after cleansing hemp and this is generally made up in small bundles of one pood which are when shipped bound together in one large bundle consisting of about thirty small ones. There were already 230 merchants and 1,720 bourgeois families living in Soltsy that year. Their father was Manuila Efimovich Vanyukov.

   From the very beginning, Soltsy merchants specialized in the primary processing of flax - scutching it. The merchants floated the resulting products on barges to Petersburg, to a special linen port, from where they headed to the linen factories. Raw materials were purchased in the district directly from the landowners' farms or at the auction, where peasants from all over the district gathered. It was this linen business that the younger Vanyukovs, Ivan and Fyodor Manuilovich, took up. They may well be considered one of the first founders of flax processing in Soltsy. Fyodor turned out to be the most successful. In all matters, Fyodor was assisted by his eldest son Yakov.    http://soltsy.orthodoxy.ru/.../vanykovy/by_savinova.html

#

 OBVERSE  click thumbnail

  REVERSE click thumbnail

notes

IDS
67
3

ФEДOPA

MAHУИЛ

 BAHЮKOBA

No 2

1847

2nd grade
Codilla

Montrose Museum
9 ADMUS: M1989.98

   IDS 673 The factory of  FEDORA MANUIL VANYUKOVA

ADM
15

ТИМОФЕЯ

МАНУИЛ

ВАНЮКОВА

no photo

no info

no info

Montrose Museum
15 ADMUS: M1995.161

    ADM 15   The factory of  TIMOFERYA MANUIL VANYUKOVA

IDS
2188

ФВ (FV)
(Fedor Vanyukov)

(Fyodor)

1
1848 (1st sort or grade

Codilla)

James Anthony
Barker
Montrose, Angus

    IDS 2188  Fedor Vanyukov was a registered hemp and flax codilla bracker in SPB (1844)

The French Connection in St Petersburg

#

OBVERSE click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Finder/ Location

IDS

1585

Г.ЛАНДРИНЪ / ФАБ.

(G.LANDRIN / FABRICTOR)
КОНФЕКТЪ /СПБ

(of CANDIES in St.Petersburg)

G.LANDRIN
FABRIQ
BONBONS
ST.PRG

G.LANDRIN
MANUFACTURER
of CANDIES in
ST.PETERSBURG

Daniil Galitski

Grigory Matveyevich Landrin 

was a confectioner, who brought

the French style to Russia.  He

produced chocolates, bonbons

and lollipops in St. Petersburg

  In the 1880's he passed away but

the company continued until the

Revolution. His chocolates were

a favourite of the Tsar.

 

Before the 1917 Revolution

there were 170 confectionery

makers in St. Petersburg, over

200 in Moscow and a total

of 600 across the country.

 

The Tsarina loved her hot

chocolate and it was cheap

enough for the peasants to

indulge as well.

 Г.ЛАНДРИНЪ (G.LANDRIN) М.КОНРАДИ (M.KONPADI)
     

Although very unwelcome in Moscow in 1812 Napoleon's image later became very popular on sweets and biscuits

  

 

Copyright 2022 © Ged Dodd

 aka PeaceHavens Project
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of free copy & share &
supporting your Project

 

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