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Russian Flax and Hemp Bale Seals from

Revel in Estonia

 

 

  REVEL. (Reval) now Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in Harju County. As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population.  Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219. In 1285, the city, then known as Revel, became the northern most member of the Hanseatic League a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe. The Danes sold Revel along with their other land possessions in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Knights in 1346. Medieval Reval enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads of trade between Western and Northern Europe and Russia. The city, with a population of 8,000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers. During the plaque years Reval was approached by a Russian force of 5,000 commanded by Christian Bauer in August 1710, and due to a decision by the local officials and nobles,  capitulated on 30 September without actually being attacked. Behind its walls was a population of 20,000 people in August, composed of the regular inhabitants, soldiers, refugees and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages, which had been demolished by the defendants on 18 August. By mid-December, about 15,000 of them had died of the plague, and the number of inhabitants was reduced to 1,990 inside the walls and 200 in the adjacent villages. The rest had either fled elsewhere, or in the case of the surviving Swedish troops and some citizens, had been allowed to leave by ship after the surrender, carrying the plague to Finland.

Revel shipped flax is mainly grown in Estonia.

 

The "Great Plague" returned up to the 18th century.

 

   Reval port has a depth of 4 to 6 fathoms, and a roadstead 3 m. wide, which freezes nearly every winter. The exports consist chiefly of grain, timber, flax, hides, wool, a species of anchovy, and hemp, and the imports of manufactured goods and machinery. The Russians besieged Reval twice, in 1570 and 1577. It was still an important fortress, having been enlarged and fortified by the Swedes. In 1710 it was surrendered to Peter the Great, who immediately began the erection of a military port for his Baltic fleet. His successors continued to fortify the access to Reval from the sea, large works being undertaken, especially in the early years of the 19th century.

   Reval and Pernau flax exports consist of Marienburg cut Risten Hafs three band and other three band.

A 1771 Russian Customs House Tax Seal for Revel found in Narva

The Obverse has the Russian double headed State Eagle with 1771.

The inscription is partly unreadable with ?????????OP .Т.РЕВЕЛСКОИ

T for TAMOЖHЯ (Customs) РЕВЕЛСКОИ is pertaining to REVEL.

Vessel Ship Arrivals and Departures for Reval Cargo
Eagle of Dundee

29-06-1831

Departed

Reval

to

Elsinore

Flax

Garry

00-12-1889

Arrived

Dundee

from

Reval

Flax

Europa 31-12-1889 Arrived Dundee from Reval Flax
Garry

04-01-1890

Arrived

Montrose

from

Dundee Reval

Flax

Amethyst 30-01-1892 Arrived Dundee from Reval Flax
Amethyst had 124 tons, 11 cwt, 2 qt, 9 lb of flax on board.
Hope 30-12-1892 Arrived Dundee from Reval Flax
Hope had total flax in cargo 312 tons 10 cwt. Shared as follows: 60 bales flax, 180 cwt
Dresden 07-01-1893 Arrived Dundee from Reval Flax hemp tow
185 bales flax 10 tons - Webster Bros /// 20 bales hemp 5 tons - The Boase Spinning Co.
39 bales flax 2 tons - Charnley & Hodgkinson /// 20 bales flax 5 tons - Thomas Bett & Co
136 bales tow 29 tons - Hill & Renny /// 6 bales hemp 1/2 ton - Hill & Renny
309 bales flax 38 tons, 21 bales hemp 5 tons, 21 bales hemp yarn 62 cwt
1 case caviar 1/4 cwt To order  (from Dresden manifest)
Ennismore 08-01-1893 Arrived Dundee from Reval Flax hemp tow
585 bales flax 31 tons - H & G Luhrs /// 611 bales flax 32 tons - H & G Luhrs
146 bales flax 8 tons - Thomas Bett & Co /// 232 bales flax 11 tons - George Reid & Co
102 bales flax 5 tons - Brough Cunningham & Co /// (J Mitchell - Agent - 10.1.1893)
140 bales flax 7 tons - Brough Cunningham & Co /// 15 bales flax 4 tons - J W Brown
3 bales tow 1/2 ton - J W Brown /// 744 bales flax 39 tons - Hill & Renny
Linseed 1500 qrs - Wilson & Sons
Majorca 09-01-1893 Arrived Dundee from Reval Flax
Majorca had 195 bales flax (10 tons) and 25 tons linseed cake
Envoy 31-12-1893 Arrived Montrose from Reval Flax

     A report from the Customs Commissioners to the Lord Treasurer, 20th December 1709, on the petition of Jonathan Hutchinson and Samuel Holden praying that the ship "Beginning" with flax from Revel may be permitted to land same at Newcastle without airing. The ship has stayed her quarantine [there] and her company are all in health: she came from Revel in July last and arrived in Newcastle Oct. 30 last and the captain saw the flax loose in the warehouse at Revel before it was packed and same was of the growth of the year 1708 and the ship lay six weeks in Elsinore Road and had liberty to go on shore when and where they pleased and when they came away they had bills of health from the magistrates of Elsinore.

Copyright 2022 Ged Dodd

 aka PeaceHavens Project
Click here for the terms
of free copy & share &
supporting your Project

 

LINKS TO EVERYTHING ELSE