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Russian Flax and Hemp Bale Seals from

Pskove

 

  Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia. It served as the capital of the Pskov Republic and was a trading post of the Hanseatic League before it came under the control of the Grand Duchy of Moscow.  It was the poor relative of Novgorod but has always played a special role in Russian trade with the West due to the extensive trade contacts of Russian cities with Scandinavia, which was the source of Russian military elite since the 10th century. Pskov at that was a veche (assembly) republic, where all free people were considered its citizens with the right to participate in governing of their city-state, which was expressed in veche assemblies and election of local officials. Because many Pskov dwellers were involved in trade and craft, the share of merchants in the ruling class was high. These merchants then took positions of sotskiys (Russian: сотский, initially, an official who represented a hundred households), izborniks (Russian: изборник, elected officials) and posadniks, which allowed them to participate in the diplomatic talks and stimulate better trade conditions. This sociopolitical system was a premise for establishing tight economic and political relations with the Hanseatic League. The Pskov republic emerged in the course of a tough struggle for independence from Novgorod but could not compete with its vast resources from the north receiving huge quantities of fur, and only part of it was reaching Pskov. Upon gaining its independence from Novgorod, Pskov merchants lost their right to trade at Novgorod Torg (market) and were treated as foreign tradesmen. The establishment of diplomatic and trade relations between Pskov republic and Hansa was predestined by its geographical location, political system and its independence from Novgorod and Russia. Pskov was trading with many Hanseatic cities – Lübeck, Danzig, Riga, but most of all with Reval and Dorpat. Riga, Revel and Dorpat were part of Teutonic Order in Livonia, or as it often called - Livonian Order – confederation of Order dominions, church lands and Free imperial cities (Freistadt). Pskov has also traded with Narva – the big Livonian city which was not part of the Hanseatic League. Narva's proximity to Novgorod contributed to the rapid growth of its trade significance. Narva traded with Novgorod and Pskov even during the bitterest of Russian-Hanseatic relations. Long-stemmed flax has been one of the main agricultural preoccupations in northwest, north-central, and central Russia in the regions of Pskov, Novgorod, St. Petersburg, Viatka, Vologda, Yaroslavl, Moscow, and Smolensk for centuries. More particularly, it is the Pskov and Novgorod regions that make up the core of Russia’s flax belt. Riga became a centre for trade, intermediate between the Hanseatic towns and those of Novgorod, Pskov and Polotsk in Belarus via the Dvina river.

     

  St. Petersburg ships Pskov 12 heads, Longa 12 heads, Staro Ruse 12 beads, Saletsky 12 heads, 9 heads, and 6 heads, all of which are white, or water-retted ; also Rjeff, let, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th crown, and Zabrack, all brown or dew-retted ; many other minor dew-retted flaxes come from St. Petersburg, bearing the names of the locality of production, as Melinki, Bejetsky, Ouglitcb, Kostroma, Jaroslav, Vologda, Wiasma.

Copyright 2022 © Ged Dodd

 aka PeaceHavens Project
Click here for the terms
of free copy & share &
supporting your Project

 

LINKS TO EVERYTHING ELSE