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The PeaceHavens Project

Copyright 2020 © Ged Dodd

 aka PeaceHavens Project

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Join here  https://www.facebook.com/groups/PeaceHavensProject/ ..

Russian Flax/Hemp Bale Seals

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  The Jewish Connection

The Planted People of St Petersburg - The Guests of Tsar Peter the Great 

   Merchants were a social group forming a part of the St. Petersburg population, individuals engaged in trade and industrial activities. In the first half of the 18th century merchants came in among the "planted people" whereupon Tsar Peter the Great forcibly sent merchants from Arkhangelsk and other cities with decrees of 1712 and 1714 stipulating the resettlement of more than 300 wealthy merchants to St. Petersburg. The so-called "guests" (by 1716 some 186 merchants were relocated) came to St. Petersburg and traded hemp, skins, flax, and canvas.  In 1869 there were about 22,300 people in the merchant class. (3.3% of the population) and  in 1897 - 17,400 (1.4%). comparing 1869/1897 .. of the merchants 77.5% and 80.4% were Russian, with 15.4% and 12% - German, and 4% and 5% Jewish.

Jews were an ethnic community within the St. Petersburg population. Hebrew is related to the Semitic group of Afrasian languages, Yiddish (was spread throughout the majority of eastern Russia) is related to the Germanic group of Indo-European family of languages. They are mostly followers of Judaism, though some have converted to Christianity. Converted Jews were among the associates of Tsar Peter the Great (diplomat P.P. Shafirov, Gen. Polismaster A.M. Devier). From the 1780s in St. Petersburg, Jewish merchants began to settle (T.N. Notkin, A.I. Peretz). However, the rights of Jews to live in the capital were restricted by special legislation. From the mid-19th century the Jewish community began to grow rapidly: in 1869, there were approximately 6,600 Jews; in 1910 - more than 35,100. Among the Jews minor craftsmen and traders predominated, but there were also doctors, lawyers, journalists and entrepreneurs. From the 1860s Jewish charitable societies operated, publishing papers in Hebrew, Yiddish and Russian. The Ginzburg Barons, rendered great assistance to the Jewish community. In 1893 a choral synagogue opened. In 1802 75 Jews were buried in a different part of Volkovskoe Lutheran Cemetery, from 1875 at their own Jewish cemetery. After October 1917, Jews received access to state organizations and city government, (significant posts were held by G.E. Zinovyev, М.S. Uritsky, V. Volodarsky).

Many Jews in Memel were in the flax trade.

The Port of Memel had a Jewish Synagogue made entirely of wood and gravestones carved in granite.

 

 Memel Harbour in 1808 (Klaipedo) Memel Harbour in Winter 1700. Lead Plumba Kosher

   The Jewish community in Riga started forming in the late 18th century. The positive contribution of the Jewish community to the swift development of industry and trade in Latvia in the late 19th century cannot be overestimated. The biggest woodworking factories, the majority of timber and grain trading, large flax mills, flax export companies and distillery businesses, were concentrated in the hands of Jewish business people. The Jewish community owned 10 banks in Riga. After 1881, a wave of anti-Semitism hit the Russian Empire. In accordance to new laws, the Jews living in Riga, Mitau, and Libau, whose actual trade was different to their officially registered one, were forced to move back to the pale of settlement. Jews were banned from working in the Government organizations and their access to university education was restricted.

 Deciphering Pavlov Star Seals

  One of the rarer Jewish seals .. the 18 known Pavlov Stars have all been found in the seal fields

 at Bentham Mills in North Yorkshire by the PeaceHavens Project Metal Detecting Team.

  The obverse has a six pointed Star of David with Ф.ПABЛOBЬ (F.PAVLOV) in Cyrillic

and P.H.PAWLOW in Latin. All the seals are identical, except in condition.

star
001
Ф.ПABЛOBЬ
(F.PAVLOV)
P.H.PAWLOW.
S. PETERSBURG
Caduceus

  The reverse has a Caduceus with flax flowers and S. PETERSBURG in Latin.

  Many Jews in St Petersburg were involved in the Flax trade and other traded goods..

  The Caduceus is the winged staff of the messenger god Hermes who was the patron of 

  trade & journeys. A suitable logo for a company shipping trade goods overseas.

        

Seals relating to Jews

  Pavlov Stars found at Bentham Mills

#

OBVERSE  click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

Notes

star

001

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ
(F.PAVLOV)
P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

 

Found in fields where the

seals were  predominately

dated 1829 to 1834

 

Actually says S. PETERSBURC

 

The only other known seal of

this type is a badly damaged

 example in Great Yarmouth

 Museum with a Star and the

 letters RBURG on the reverse.

 

The six-pointed star, the Magen

David, the Shield of David,

the Star of David, is also

known as a hexagram, or

more rarely, Solomon's Seal.

 

Many Jews in St Petersburg were

involved in the Flax trade

  

 

The Caduceus is the winged staff

of the messenger god Hermes who

was the patron of trade & journeys.

A suitable logo for a company

shipping trade goods overseas.

 

 

Many buildings in St Petersburg

have a Caduceus on their facade.

 

A superb example of a cloth seal

with a Caduceus and Hermes.

Philippe Lanez- the monogram

MDF is Matthieu de Favay. MANUFACTURE MATTHIEU DE FAVAY a EUPEN.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

An interesting Cloth Seal from a

Maritime Port. The letters in

German and Cyrillic state

TUCH UND TRIKOT

Cloth and Fine Knitwear.

The Caduceus is the winged staff

of the messenger god Hermes who

was the patron of trade & journeys.

A suitable logo for a company

shipping trade goods overseas.

The Anchor symbolises a port.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

star

002

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV) 

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

003

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV) 

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG
Caduceus

star

004

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV) 

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

005

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

006

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

007

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

008

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

009

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

010

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV) 

P.H.PAWLOW.

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

011

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

012

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

013

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

014

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

015

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

016

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

017

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

star

018

Ф.ПABЛOBЬ

(F.PAVLOV)

P.H.PAWLOW

S. PETERSBURG

Caduceus

         

Star Seals from Kinghorn Mills in Fife

Star

KH01

????

1800

*

blank
St Petersburg

  A similar seal is in Great Yarmouth Museum 4 GRYEH: 1891.74.1

  The reverse had -RBURG in Cyrillic - PБУPГ

  Star Seal from random internet search (as above)

IDS

979

????

1800

*

no photo

blank
St Petersburg

Carved Star Seals from Little Patrick Mill

1820

L94

ЛД = LD

П.ШИЛOBЬ

(P.SHILOV)

H97

NP

AK12H

1820

97

post

 

 

 

 

 

Star of David Guano Seals from Belgium

 

Guano

Star 1

Star of David

GUANO

found by

Johan

 Dils

Guano

Star 2

Star of David

GUANO

found by

Johan

 Dils

Guano

Star 3

Star of David

GUANO

found by

Johan

 Dils

Guano

Star 4

Star of David

GUANO

found by

Johan

 Dils

 More Guano seals on the Inland Fur & Pelt Trade page
           
 
Lots of Star of David Guano Seals from the UK         and Jewish Kosher Seals from the Netherlands

 

Examples of Kosher Seals

  “In Yiddish they're called Plumbas (ie "leads") and they are some sort of kosher seal. The pictures show the text.

   The right side has three Hebrew letters: Aleph, Bet, Dalet (ABD) which are initials for Av Bet Din ("The Chief of the (Rabbinical) Court").

  The left hand side is less distinct but almost certainly says Dalet, Kuf, Kuf (DKK) which stands for De Kehillah Kedosha  ("of the Holy Community" = ie of the town).

 

  The left side reads A & Iz. M. / ZWOLLE i.e. Abraham and Isaac Marcus in the city of Zwolle, in the Netherlands.

   The right side has  O.R.O., the initials for Opper Rabbinaat Overijssel. the Chief Rabbinate of the province of Overijssel.

    The kosher certification agency is an organization that grants the "hechsher" or the seal of approval.  הכשר

There are many more examples none of which seem to have anything to do with the flax trade.

They are clamped to meat or poultry deemed fit for consumption after passing certain stringent tests.

See more examples on http://www.bagseals.org
 

 

 

The PeaceHavens Project

Join here https://www.facebook.com/groups/PeaceHavens/ ..

Copyright 2020 © Ged Dodd

 aka PeaceHavens Project

 Click here for the terms

 of free copy and share.

Thanks for your kind support .. Ged        ged.dodd@blueyonder.co.uk