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 Bentham - Seals from Archangel

 

Links to BENTHAM COLLECTION in
LANCASTER MARITIME MUSEUM

 

 

The purpose of this page. Archangel flax was much prized for its quality but the problem was with it being so far north was it tended to be frozen shut during the winter, so Bentham got fewer bales from here than from the Baltic ports. Basically, seals had,  on the obverse -  ДECЯT (inspector) and his name or initgials in Cyrillic, and on the reverse -    A.П. (A.P for Archangel Port, ЛHЯHБPAK which means bracked as Linen Goods, a grading number of 1,2 or 3, the Grower/Owner or Agent initials, followed by a P (R) for grade and the date of bracking, inspection.
 

ARC

25

A. П.

ДECЯTC

CK

A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK

3 BD P 1822

This is an example - There are many variations, with a larger type of seal specifying what was in the bale ..  CHESKA (Cheska), a low grade heckled flax, or KУДeЛЬH (Kudel'n), coarse broken  parts of the flax from Heckling and Scutching processes, or ПAKЛЯ (Paklya, Codilla broken fibres used for Tow yarns.) There are other grades which were not found at Bentham. KROWN (high grade long fibre), OTBORNI (selected) and others like ЗAБPAKЪ (ZABRAK) the lowest quality hemp.

 

Archangel was Russia's first northern seaport and between 1668 and 1684 a large fortified trading centre, the Gostiny Dvor, was constructed on its riverbank. The winter weather gave a very short time slot for trading as the port iced over and many ships were lost or abandoned to the crushing ice.   The founding of St Petersburg in 1702 in the warmer waters of the Baltic, along with the ports Konigsberg, Kronstadt, Libnau, Memel, Narva, Pernau, Reval, Riga, Tilsit, Windau and others pushed Arkhangelsk out of the limelight. Archangel used flax from Kama, Kostrogna, Tot'ma, Ustyug, Vologda, Vyatka, Yaroslavl where it was usually dew-retted in the fields. Archangel had a reputation for honest bracking whereas the Baltic Ports standards were not as good and were abandoned in the late 1840's. The English merchants still preferred to buy Archangel flax whenever possible and continued up to 1900.

 

 

Flax Bale Seals from Archangel

found at Bentham Mill were made of a pewter alloy

 

   DESATSKIE in the Russian Empire were elected officials from peasants to perform police and various other public functions, to observed the purity in the villages, for the purity of water in the river, for the adoption of fire-fighting measures, for the order during the bidding, bazaars, for the sale of good-quality products, for the production of trade and they reported to the police about the garbage, children, the crazy, the dead bodies found, the appearance of thieves, bandits and any emergency incident.

  At Archangel the Д (D) DESYATNIK was a Quality Control Officer selected by ten  brackers themselves who worked under his (or her) direct supervision to carry out the inspection and certify on their behalf the bundle of flax or hemp to which the seal was fastened. Variations found on seals are ДЕС, ДЕСЯCK, ДЕСЯТ, ДЕСЯТC, ДЕСЯТCK, ДЕСЯТH, ДЕСЯТHИKЪ, ДЕСЯТЬHИKЪ.

  The Ц in the abbreviations ДeСЯЦK, ДЕСЯЦKO and ДЕСЯЦKOИ in the ARC seals indicate a higher ranking Tsolnery or Customs Officer.

#

OBVERSE click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

ARC
01
 ДECЯT (inspector)
БOPOBЬ CИHPOBЬ
(BOROV SINROV)
БPAKOB: БPAK
ЛHAБPA
3
ЯC P  1825
Quality Bracked
LNABRA
 (flax)
3
Ya.S R  1825

Letters around the edge  БPAKOB: БPAK means Quality Controlled Bracking (inspection)

LNABRA, LNYANBRAK mean inspected linen goods, ie. flax.

ARC
02
 ДECЯT (inspector)
БOPOBЬ CИHPOBЬ
(BOROV SINROV)
 БPAKOB: БPAK
ЛHAБPA
3
ЯC P  1825
Quality Bracked
LNABRA
 (flax)
3
Ya.S R  1825

ARC

03

A.П.

(Archangel Port)

 ДECЯЦ

BK

 БPAKOB: БPAK
ЛHAБPA
3
ЯC P  1825
Quality Bracked
LNABRA
 (flax)
3
Ya.S R  1825

ARC

04

A.П.

(Archangel Port)

ДECЯЦ

BK

 БPAKOB: БPAK
ЛHAБPA
3
ЯC P  1825
Quality Bracked
LNABRA
 (flax)
3
Ya.S R  1825

ARC

05

A.П.

(Archangel Port)

ДECЯЦ

BK

 БPAKOB: БPAK
ЛHAБPA
3
ЯC P  1825
Quality Bracked
LNABRA
 (flax)
3
Ya.S R  1825
 The seals ARC 01 - ARC 05 have writing around the edge  ????AHAЯБOB??KOБ : БPAK

ARC

06

- - -

ДECЯЦKOИ

(Customs Officer)

high ranking Tsolnery

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
3
BD P  1807
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
3
BD R 1807

ARC

07

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

ARC

08

- - -

- - -

- - -

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
3
BD P  1807
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
3
BD R 1807

ARC

09

A. П.

(Archangel Port)

ДECЯmC

MK

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
2
BD P  18??
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
BD R 18??

ARC

10

- - -

????

- - -

from

West House

Mills

(flax)

ARC

11

- - -

- - -

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
3
BD P  1829
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
3
BD R 1829

ARC

12

A.П.

(Archangel Port)

ДЕСЯЦK

? ?

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
2
BD P  1829
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
BD R 1829

ARC

13

 A.П.

ДECЯЦKOИ

(Customs Officer)

high ranking Tsolnery

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
2
BD P  1829
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
BD R 1829

ARC

14

ФK

(F.K)

A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK

3 BD P 1829

  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
3 BD R 1829

ARC

15

A П

ДECЯECK

E?

A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK

2 BD P 1829

  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2 BD R 1829

ARC

16

A.П.

ДECЯECK

AMC

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
2
ЯC P  1822
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
YaS R 1822

ARC

17

Д ?

BEHЬ

?ДOBЬ

A. П. (Archangel Port)

ЛHAБPA

3 JD P 1811

A P

LNABRA (flax)

3 JD R1811

ARC

18

A. П.

ДECЯЦK

??

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
2
ЯC P  1822
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
YaS R 1822

ARC

19

A П

ДECЯ--

- П

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
2
ЯC P  1822
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
YaS R 1822

ARC

20

A. П.

ДEЦKO

ФК

A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK

2 BD P 1822

  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
BD R 1822

ARC

21

A-П

ДECЯЦK

AC

A. П.

ЛHЯH.БPAK

BD  ПAKЛЯ 1831

A P

LNYANBRAK (flax)

BD PAKLYA 1831

ARC 021 .. this is ПAKЛЯ grade flax (Paklya, Codilla or Scutching Tow are the broken fibres

from the scutching and heckling process and are used for Tow yarns.)

ARC

22

A. П.

ДEЦK

? ?

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
2
ЯC P  1829
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
YaS R 1829

ARC

23

A.П.

(Archangel Port)

ДЕСЯЦKOИ

? ?

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
?
?? P  18??
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
?
?? R  18??

ARC

24

A-П

ДECЯЦK

AC

A. П.

ЛHЯH.БPAK

BD  ПAKЛЯ 1831

A P

LNYANBRAK (flax)

BD PAKLYA 1831

ARC 021 .. this is ПAKЛЯ grade flax (Paklya, Codilla or Scutching Tow are the broken fibres

from the scutching and heckling process and are used for Tow yarns.)

ARC

25

A. П.

ДECЯTC

CK

A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK

3 BD P 1822

  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
3
BD R 1822

ARC

26

A. П.

ДECЯЦK

??

  A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK
3
ЯC P  18??
  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
3
YaS R 18??

ARC

27

A-П

ДECЯЦKОИ

TM

A.П. (Archangel Port)
ЛHЯHБPAK

2 BD P 1824

  A P
LNYANBRAK (flax)
2
BD R 1824

This seal was found in a field between Low Bentham road and the nearby railway line.
  The field lies behind what is a newish junior school.

. About mid point between High and Low Bentham which are about a mile apart along the road. .

 

 

Archangel Manager Seals found at Bentham Mill

(Updated January 2022 for the Lancaster Maritime Museum)

ДЕСЯТ (ДЕСЯТНИК) was a manager in charge of ten people

Most Bale Seals weigh 11-12 grams - These Seals weigh a hefty 23-24 grams.

#

OBVERSE click thumbnail

REVERSE click thumbnail

ARC

L01

ДeСЯТ

ABД AФAHACЬe

(AVDOTI AFANAS'EV)

APX. БP

KУДeЛЬH

1"COPTЪ

AP1841

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

1st SORT

AR 1841

KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L02

ДeСЯТ

MИXA: KOЛYПAEB

(MICHAEL KOLUPAEV)

APX. БP

KУДeЛЬH

2-COPTЪ

B.ЛED 1842

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

2nd SORT

V.LED 1842

  KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L03

ДeСЯТ

TИMO: ЗBЯГИHЬ

(TIMOTHY ZVYATIN)

APX. БP

KУДEЛЬH

1-COPTЪ

EP1843

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

1st SORT

ER 1843

KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L04

????

????

????

APX. Б

????

????

????

ARCH.BR

?

?

?

ARC

L05

ДeСЯТ

ABД AФAHACЬЁBЬ

(AVDOTI AFANAS'EV)

APX. БP

KУДeЛЬH

1-COPTЪ

AP1841

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

1st SORT

AR 1841

KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L06

ДeСЯТ

ABДAHACЬeBЬ

(AVDOTI AFANAS'EV)

APX. БP

KУДeЛЬH

1-COPTЪ

AP 1841

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

1st SORT

AR 1841

KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L07

????

????

????

????

????

????

????

????

????

ARC

L08

ДЕСЯT

ФEД. БPЮXAHOBЪ

(FEDOR BRYUKHANOV)

APX. БP
KУДЁЛЬH
2 COPTЪ

AP 1842

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

2nd SORT

AR 1842

KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L09

ДeСЯТ

ABД AФAHACЬe

(AVDOTI AFANAS'EV)

APX. БP
KУДЁЛЬH
1 COPтЪ

B.ЛED 1841

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

1st SORT

V.LED 1841

KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L10

ДЕСЯТ

MИXA: CBEЩHИKOBЪ

(MICHAEL SVESHCHINOV)

APX. БP

ЧECKAЬ

1-CORTЬ

AP 1843

ARCH.BR

CHESKA

1st SORT

AR 1843

  CHESKA is a low grade heckled flax.

ARC

L11

APX.БP

ДЕСЯТ.

HИKOЛAИ TAPУCOB

(NIKOLAI TARUAOV)

APX. БP

KУДЁЛЬH

2-COP

M:K 1851

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

2nd SORT

M:K 1851

KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC
L12

APXAHГ.ПOP/ ДECЯT

ARCHANGEL PORT MANAGER
AHДPEI ШУMAH
(ANDREI SHUMAN)

APX.БPA
КУДЕЛЪ
1.COPTЪ
E П 1845

ARCH BRA

KUDEL
1st Sort
(tow)

E P 1845

 KUDEL is the coarse broken part of a hemp flax mix after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L13

ДЕСЯТ

KOCT. ЗБГИHЬ

(KOSTIN ZBGIN)

APX. БP

KУДЁЛЬH

1-COPTЬ

BЛED1843

ARCH.BR

KUDYEL'N

1st SORT

V.LED 1843

KUDEL'N is the coarse broken part of flax after the Heckling and Scutching processes.

ARC

L14

APX.БPA

ДЕСЯТCK

МИХАИЛО ЕВПИЛOВЪ
(MIKHAILO EVPILOV)

АРХАН. ПОРТ

ЧЕСКА

2.COPTЬ

Я.П.В.1883

ARCHAN. PORT

CHESKA

2nd SORT

Ya.P.V. 1883

 CHESKA is a low grade heckled flax.

 This seal was found in a field between Low Bentham road and a nearby railway line.
  The field lies behind what is a newish junior school. This is about mid point between  High and Low Bentham which are about a mile apart along the road. .

 

Links to BENTHAM COLLECTION in
LANCASTER MARITIME MUSEUM

 

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